add system guide

master
Peter Babič 4 years ago
parent 02ccf10a82
commit 6ca59f2221
  1. 26
      system_guide/BOM.csv
  2. 921
      system_guide/analytical.lyx
  3. 124
      system_guide/analytical.tex
  4. 7
      system_guide/appendices.tex
  5. 486
      system_guide/appendixc.lyx
  6. 31
      system_guide/appendixc.tex
  7. 29
      system_guide/bibliography.bib
  8. 11
      system_guide/conclusion.tex
  9. BIN
      system_guide/figures/activity_rfid_uml.jpg
  10. BIN
      system_guide/figures/usecase_rfid_uml.jpg
  11. 35
      system_guide/introduction.tex
  12. 358
      system_guide/mainpart.tex
  13. 802
      system_guide/natbib.sty
  14. 134
      system_guide/nicefrac.sty
  15. 177
      system_guide/nomencl.sty
  16. 12
      system_guide/notes
  17. 157
      system_guide/problemexpres.tex
  18. 1090
      system_guide/tukethesis.cls
  19. 0
      system_guide/tukethesis.lyx
  20. BIN
      system_guide/tukethesis.pdf
  21. 229
      system_guide/tukethesis.tex

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# RefDes Value Pattern Quantity
1 B1 CR1220 1
2 C1 - C8, C12, C14 0.1uF CAP_0805 10
3 C9 4.7uF CAP_0805 1
4 C10, C11 10uF TC_0805 2
5 C13 10uF CAP_0805 1
6 C15, C16 47pF CAP_0805 2
7 D1 1N4148 CAP_0805 1
8 D2 BAT42 MINIMELF 1
9 J1 – J6 connectors 1
15 LS1 Piezo 1
16 Q1 AP2309GN SOT23 1
17 Q2 BC807 SOT23 1
18 R1, R2, R3, R5, R6, R7 22k RES_0805 6
19 R4, R11, R12, R15, R16 10k RES_0805 5
20 R8 100R RES_0805 1
21 R9 470k RES_0805 1
22 R10 100k RES_0805 1
23 R13, R14 27R RES_0805 2
24 U1 ATmega328 QFP-32/9x9x0.8 1
25 U2 DS1302Z SOIC-8/150mil 1
26 U3 LTC4412ES6 SOT23-6 1
27 U4 FT321X QSOP-20 1
28 U5 LP2985-33 SOT23-5 1
29 Y1 16.0 CSTCE16M0V53-R0 1
30 Y2 0.032768 1
unable to load file from base commit

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Analytical considerations
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Toto je Å¡tvorec
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\section{Program requirements}
In present days, there exists multiple libraries for managing almost every action possible by this device. Since the Arduino platform was chosen, the libraries are often normalized to conform some compatibility standards. In most of them, object-oriented programming is embraced, which further simplifies implementation and code reusability.
\subsection{Individual tasks}
The program should handle these tasks:
\begin{itemize}
\item show information on the display
\item receive commands from user interface
\item maintain real time and date
\item obtain tag information from RFID reader module
\item store tag information along with time and date in a memory
\item process communication with PC
\end{itemize}
\newpage
\subsection{Required libraries}
Since the memories, contained within the microcontroller are small enough, that we could easily hit their limits, the used libraries should be small size, more importantly, they should consume as little RAM as possible. Potentially useful libraries:
\begin{itemize}
\item PCD8544 driver for dot-matrix LCD display
\item MicroSD card library with FAT16 library
\item MFRC522 Mifare communication chip
\item commands over serial line library
\item rotary encoder and push-button with interrupt support and aditional software debouncing
\item clock prescaler library
\item DS1302 RTC timekeeping chip library
\end{itemize}
We do not look explicitly for UART, SPI, ADC or EEPROM libraries, since they are natively part of the Arduino framework, and they work well.
%\subsection{User menu entries}
%\begin{itemize}
% \item set time/date
% \item create new meeting file with generic name
% \item delete meeting file
% \item set current meeting file to save into
%\end{itemize}
%
%\subsection{PC communication data set}
%The device should be able to recognize and execute following commands on meeting files given from PC:
%\begin{itemize}
% \item show all
% \item delete
% \item create
% \item rename
% \item download
%\end{itemize}
%
%\newpage
%\section{Hardware dependencies}
%Things that needs to be considered about components/modules, when designing this kind of device are:
%\begin{itemize}
% \item power consumption
% \item cost
% \item availability
%\end{itemize}
%
%%The most crucial thing to consider, when designing this device is probably the power consumption, since it is powered from batteries. Another really important thing is, of course, the cost of components, because cost always drives the design in some ways. The third thing that is ultimately connected with the cost is availability. You have to consider this two factors when designing a product, in case it will get on the market eventually. Yes, we could just splat some pieces together and make it work, but then you will have to redesign the whole thing later to be able to compete on the market. To avoid this, it is easier to design the product with considerations about cost and availability of parts upfront.
%
%\subsection{Viable microcontroller}
%Microcontroller has to synchronize all the device duties, discussed earlier. These task are simple enough to be built around 8-bit microcontroller, which reduces cost and power consumption. Most viable options are:
%\begin{itemize}
% \item AVR ATmega168/ATmega328 has tons of available source codes
% \item AVR ATmega32u2 has built in USB controller
%\end{itemize}
%
%\subsection{Display and user interface}
%Display has to have low power consumption. Apart from that, it should have at least two lines to be able to show enough information.
%
%Touchscreen is option that combines a display and an user interface. If push-buttons are used as a human interface, the display is needed. Viable display types are LCD, oLED and e-ink.
%%\begin{itemize}
%% \item LCD
%% \item oLED
%% \item e-Ink
%%\end{itemize}
%
%
%%The choices are PCD8544 compatible (LCD, Nokia3310), Hitachi HD44780 compatible (LCD, 16x2), e-ink (lowest power consumption but expensive), TFT (expensive, a lot of additional circuitry and software needed but no need for user interface), OLED (not that cheap but less power consumption that LCD).
%
%\subsection{Keeping track of time and date}
%Real-time can be tracked by either a MCU or using external RTC module.
%RTC module has own battery supply, the algorithms for time and date built in and also provides some additional nvRAM for storing data that should not get lost, but microcontroller usually has some EEPROM memory for this purpose, which will be much faster.
%
%\subsection{RFID reader module}
%Reader has to be able to decode Mifare tag information. The most obvious reason is to use MFRC522 Contactless reader IC controller from NXP Semiconductor, because it does all the hard job. It is quite expensive alone, but you can get it from the China already soldered it as a module with driving electronics, and what is more important, an inductor working as an antenna, for the price for the IC alone! Choosing this module solves a lot of problems.
%
%\subsection{Memory for storing lists}
%Lists of information should be stored in some form of electronically programmable non-volatile memory, in basic structured format. Common types are:
%\begin{itemize}
% \item Flash (internal or as a microSD card)
% \item EEPROM
%\end{itemize}
%MicroSD card needs its own special compartment, where it is inserted and makes electrical contact. User should be able to replace the microSD card within the device.
%
%
%\subsection{Communication with PC}
%Communication between the device and the PC has to be fast enough to provide quick way of downloading the lists stored in device memory. This can be accomplished with the use of USB. Using Bluetooth can be another or additional option for this purpose.
%
%\subsection{A power source}
%When considering a power source, a lot of options comes to play. First choice:
%\begin{itemize}
% \item replaceable power source
% \item non-replaceable power source
%\end{itemize}
%Replaceable source could be standard rechargeable or non-rechargeable cell batteries of two 1.5V batteries or one 9V battery. Device will need stand-alone battery compartment for battery maintenance.
%
%For non-replaceable power source, combination of these could be implemented:
%\begin{itemize}
% \item solar panel
% \item Li-Po rechargeable battery
% \item supercapacitor
% \item wireless charging through RFID antenna
%\end{itemize}
%
%
%%Since the device is battery powered, obviously, the battery is needed. Basically, there are two types of batteries: non-replaceable and replaceable. The first option is an easy way - cheap a no additional devices needed. The problem is that batteries needs to be changed and also, the device needs a slot on the box for battery compartment. The second options is to use some rechargeable battery, that will be inside. For small electronics Li-ion or Li-Po battery is probably the best option. This fits greatly, because the device is already going to have an USB connector for data manipulation, so it can be used for charging, too. The disadvantage is added cost and space occupation by charging circuitry devices.
%%
%%There are also some other, rather impractical options. We could use a supercapacitor as a power source. Requires no additional charging circuitry, but the price is still relatively high. I may do some more research on this. Another option is to integrate some mini solar panel, but this again increases the cost greatly and makes practical advantage only on sunlight. Probably the most interesting option is to use the inductor, which is used for RF communication also for battery charging. This cool idea has quite a lot of problems, thou. The module I decided to use does not support this, so it will need custom made (expensive) RF module and it will need some kind of docking charging station. This will however made whole USB capabilities of the device obsolete, so it is maybe not that bad idea.
%%
%%Whichever option will be used is subject for further investigation.
%
%\subsection{Firmware dependencies}
%For the firmware there are again two options: program it from scratch and use some platform. The first option is viable mainly to applications which have limitations such as RAM or Flash memory space, or where timing is crucial. Since these are not the case here, because we are limited mainly with the amount of power stored in battery, a framework/platform can be used to greatly aid in firmware development.

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\section*{Appendices}
\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\numberline{}Appendices}
\thispagestyle{empty}
\begin{description}
\item[Appendix A] CD with electronic form of thesis, schematics source files, firmware source code and all the software needed to open and compile the all the provided source files
\end{description}

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Do preambuly zapíšeme nasledujúce príkazy
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb+
\backslash
usepackage[slovak,noprefix]{nomencl}+
\end_layout
\end_inset
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb+
\backslash
makeglossary+
\end_layout
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Enumerate
V
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
mieste, kde má byť
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
/
\end_layout
\end_inset
vložený zoznam zapíšeme príkaz
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb+
\backslash
printglossary+
\end_layout
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Enumerate
V miestach, kde sa vyskytujú skratky a symboly ich definíciu zavedieme, napr. ako v
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
našom texte, príkazmi
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb+
\backslash
nomenclature{$
\backslash
upmu$}{mikro, $10^{-6}$}+
\end_layout
\end_inset
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb+
\backslash
nomenclature{V}{volt, základná jednotka napätia v sústave SI}+
\end_layout
\end_inset
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
a dokument
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
uv
\end_layout
\end_inset
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
{
\end_layout
\end_inset
preLaTeXujeme
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
}
\end_layout
\end_inset
.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Enumerate
Z
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
príkazového riadka spustíme program
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb+makeindex+
\end_layout
\end_inset
s
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
prepínačmi podľa použitého operačného systému, napr.
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
v
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
OS
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
GNU/Linux s
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
distribúciou Ubuntu
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset Formula $10.04$
\end_inset
a
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
verziou
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb+texlive 2009-7+
\end_layout
\end_inset
napíšeme:
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb*+makeindex tukedip.glo -s nomencl.ist -o tukedip.gls+
\backslash
\backslash
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
~v~OS~Win
\backslash
,XP s~verziou
\backslash
verb+TeXLive 2010+
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
napíšeme:
\backslash
\backslash
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
verb*
\end_layout
\end_inset
+makeindex -o tukedip.gls -s nomencl.ist tukedip.glo+
\end_layout
\begin_layout Enumerate
Po opätovnom
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
\backslash
uv
\end_layout
\end_inset
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
{
\end_layout
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preLaTeXovaní
\begin_inset ERT
status collapsed
\begin_layout Standard
}
\end_layout
\end_inset
dokumentu sa na požadované miesto vloží
\emph on
Zoznam skratiek a symbolov
\emph default
.
\end_layout
\end_body
\end_document

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\section*{Appendix C}
\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\numberline{}Appendix C}
\subsection*{Vytvorenie zoznamu skratiek a symbolov}
Ak sú v~práci skratky a symboly, vytvára sa \emph{Zoznam skratiek
a~symbolov} (a~ich dešifrovanie). V~prostredí \LaTeX{}u sa takýto
zoznam
ľahko vytvorí pomocou balíka \verb+nomencl+. Postup je nasledovný:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Do preambuly zapíšeme nasledujúce príkazy\\
\verb+\usepackage[slovak,noprefix]{nomencl}+\\ \verb+\makeglossary+
\item V~mieste, kde má byť\/ vložený zoznam zapíšeme príkaz\\
\verb+\printglossary+
\item V miestach, kde sa vyskytujú skratky a symboly ich definíciu
zavedieme, napr. ako v~našom texte, príkazmi\\
\verb+\nomenclature{$\upmu$}{mikro, $10^{-6}$}+\\
\verb+\nomenclature{V}{volt, základná jednotka napätia v sústave SI}+\\
a dokument \uv{pre\LaTeX{}ujeme}.
\item Z~príkazového riadka spustíme program \verb+makeindex+
s~prepínačmi podľa použitého operačného systému, napr.~v~OS~GNU/Linux
s~distribúciou Ubuntu~$10.04$ a~verziou \verb+texlive 2009-7+
napíšeme:\\
\verb*+makeindex tukedip.glo -s nomencl.ist -o tukedip.gls+\\
~v~OS~Win\,XP s~verziou \verb+TeXLive 2010+
napíšeme:\\
\verb*+makeindex -o tukedip.gls -s nomencl.ist tukedip.glo+
\item Po opätovnom \uv{pre\LaTeX{}ovaní} dokumentu sa na
požadované
miesto vloží \emph{Zoznam skratiek a symbolov}.
\end{enumerate}

@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
@book{monk2013programming,
title={Programming Arduino Next Steps: Going Further with Sketches},
author={Monk, S.},
isbn={9780071830256},
lccn={2013033821},
series={McGraw-Hill Electronics},
url={http://books.google.sk/books?id=gRwIAQAAQBAJ},
year={2013},
publisher={McGraw-Hill Education}
}
@book{anderson2013pro,
title={Pro Arduino},
author={Anderson, R. and Cervo, D.},
isbn={9781430239406},
series={Technology in action series},
url={http://books.google.sk/books?id=PNvI6rBrxncC},
year={2013},
publisher={Apress}
}
@misc{arduino:pro_mini,
key = {zzz Arduino Pro Mini, Rev.3 Schematics},
title = {Arduino Pro Mini, Rev.3 Schematics},
howpublished = {\url{http://arduino.cc/en/uploads/Main/Arduino-Pro-Mini-schematic.pdf}},
note = {(Visited on 05/27/2014)}
}

@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
\section{Conclusion}
The main task was to construct a portable hand-held device, capable of reading the RFID tags contained in student's ISIC cards and store them onto the SD card. This task was fully accomplished and the device meets all the requirements. Additional features, like minimal user interface and a Serial connection over the USB with supportive commands were successfully included.
\subsection{Possible future improvements}
The biggest problem is absence of proper switch to turn device off. Present solution relies connectors making touch, when pushed. While it works, it is unintuitive and also unreliable. Also, the implementation of display's backlight would improve readability.
The second main concern are non-rechargeable batteries for main power and for RTC backup. The device could be improved by adding support for handling and charging the LI-PO rechargeable batteries. Used RTC chip has a charging capability, so the RTC backup battery should be changed to supercapacitor.
Also, the RFID reader module itself draws a lot of current, one order of magnitude more, compared to all other electronic. The passive LED diode contained on the module could be desoldered, to reduce the power consumption a bit.
There is also a lot of room to improve the efficiency of the firmware, regarding the power consumption. There was a little effort put in this, since the module itself draws far more current, so it is less important.

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\setcounter{page}{1}
\setcounter{equation}{0}
\setcounter{figure}{0}
\setcounter{table}{0}
\section*{Introduction}
The idea is to construct a battery powered device that will be able to read the RFID tag from the ISIC cards students briefly place onto the reader part. The tags will then be stored on the detachable microSD card in structured format, alongside with time and date. The end result of this process is actually a attendance list of students. The device is to be used in the environment, where there are limited possibilities do proper attendance list, i.e. in the gym or when working in terrain.
Basic concept is to design and realize an electronic circuit, which will handle RFID communication with the student's ISIC card.
The project itself basically consists of this main parts:
\begin{itemize}
\item the microcontroller
\item the RFID reader module
\item the power source
\item a display
\item the storage memory for the lists
\item a way to communicate with a PC
\item a real-time tracking module
\item some user interface
\end{itemize}
The two absolutely crucial areas that needs to described in deeper detail this project are microcontrollers and of course the RFID.
\nomenclature{$\upmu$}{micro, $10^{-6}$}
\nomenclature{SI}{Syst\`eme International}
\nomenclature{V}{Volt, basic unit in SI}
\nomenclature{RFID}{Radio Frequency Identification}
\nomenclature{ISIC}{International Student Identity Card}
\nomenclature{LCD}{Liquid-crystal Display}
\nomenclature{USB}{Universal Serial Bus}
\nomenclature{RTC}{Real-time Clock}
\nomenclature{microSD}{Secure Digital memory card}
\nomenclature{MCU}{Microcontroller, sometimes uC or $\upmu$C}

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\section{Program description}
The program consists of two main parts: the setup part and the loop part.
The setup part does the things, that needs to be done once which are mostly initializations - clock prescaler, LCD, interrupts, SPI, pins and so on.
The loop part does the same thing all over again. This main cycle check, if there was a command received over a serial line, refreshes the time shown on the display, check if the button was pressed and then checks if some data are available from the RFID reader.
\subsection{UML activity diagram}
\begin{figure}[ht!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth,angle=0]{activity_rfid_uml.jpg}
\caption{Activity diagram of the program in UML language}\label{uml:act}
\end{figure}
Activity diagram of the internal workings of the device's embedded system is shown in \ref{uml:act}. As we can see from the activity diagram shown above, the device itself (red) is responsible for storing the actual time and date and keeping track of it, checking and reading the file­system on the SD card for files and writing into them, providing the back­end for the device human interface and servicing the communication with RFID capable card working on Mifare protocol.
\subsection*